Кензо Учимура - японський К'єркеґор

Kinya Masugata


Стаття присвячена Кензо Учимурі, відомому японському духовному лідерові, християнинові і шанувальникові Біблії, який, з одного боку, є засновником Мукіокай, християнського "нецерковного" руху, "жодним чином не пов'язаного із Заходом" і що "не має ніякого іншого наставника, окрім Біблії", а з іншого боку, іменується "японським К’єркеґором". Аналізуються філософські і теологічні погляди Кензо Учимури, викладені в його головній роботі "Як я став християнином" (1895). Особливо детально розглядається глибоко і яскраво описаний філософом процес становлення і розвитку його власної віри. Простежується зв'язок і взаємозалежність "апокаліптичної" віри Кензо Учимури і "парадоксальної", "абсурдної" віри Сьорена К’єркеґора. Доводиться, що книга Кензо Учимури "Як я став християнином" змістовно і ідейно нагадує нам безпосереднє призначення і сенс релігійної творчості С. К’єркеґора, представленої датським мислителем в його роботі "Як стати християнином", а духовні пошуки японського мислителя спрямовані на розвиток особливої (нової) етики, створити яку і намагався "датський Сократ". Загальною ідеєю для обох філософів при оцінці християнського світу являється жорстке розмежування між християнством первинним, чистим і простим, і християнством, прикрашеним і догматизованим професорами теології. Розглядається і обґрунтовується прямий вплив морального кодексу Бусідо на становлення і розвиток такого феномену, як "японське християнство".

Ключові слова

Християнство; "Мукіокай"; віра; "нова етика"; Бусідо

Повний текст:

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Uchimura, Kanzo Zenshu. How I Became A Christian. The Complete Works of Uchimura Kanzo. Iwanami Publishing Company, 1980–1984.

On April 12, 1883, he wrote in his diary, “Depression; no spirit.” [1, v. 3, p. 68]. “I descried in myself an empty space which neither activity in religious works, nor success in scientific experiments, could fill. What the exact nature of that emptiness was, I was not able to discern. May be, my health was getting poor, and I yearned after repose and easier tasks. Or, as I was rapidly growing into my manhood, that irresistible call of nature for companionship might have made me feel so haggard and empty. At all events, a vacuum there was, and it must be filled somehow with something” [1, v.3, p. 67]. On March 28, 1884, he married Take Asada, but the marriage ended in divorce seven months later. The vacuum in his soul “was not to be obliterated” [1, v.3, p. 76] by any events. “Failing to find the desired satisfaction in my own land,” he decided to extend his research to Christendom to find “Peace and Joy…easily by any sincere seeker after the Truth” [1, v. 3, p. 76].

“I believe I was really converted, that is turned back, there, some ten years after I was baptized in my homeland. The Lord revealed Himself to me there, especially through that one man—the eagle-eyed, lion-faced, lamb-hearted president of my college” [1, v. 3, p. 129]. Seelye studied theology at the University of Halle from 1852–1853.

“Spiritless Theology is the driest and most worthless of all studies. To see students laughing and jesting while discussing serious subjects is almost shocking. No wonder they cannot get at the bottom of the Truth. It requires the utmost zeal and earnestness to draw life from the Rock of Ages” [1, v.3, p. 175].

He wrote this sentence at the end of How I Became a Christian. “But here this book must close. I have been told you how I became a Christian. Should my life prove eventful enough, and my readers are not tired of my ways of telling, they shall have another book like this upon “How I Worked a Christian.” [1, v.3, p. 164].

See John F. Howes, Japan’s Modern Prophet, Uchimura Kanzo, 1861–1930, 2005, p. 72, and editor’s note of vol. 36 of Kanzo Uchimura, Complete Works [1, v.36, pp. 571–572].

In 1906, Gundert visited Uchimura and lived in Japan. He founded Japanese Studies, (Japanology) in Germany.

Uchimura sent a letter to his friend Bell on July 31, 1904, in which he wrote, “My book in Germany has been a great success. I hear the first edition of 3000 copies was exhausted at once, and the second edition is now out. Many high authorities reviewed it carefully, and gave me their ‘glad assent.’ I have also had the honour of receiving 300 marks of German money as my share in the stake of the first edition. ...And the best of all, it will be instrumental in sending out one missionary [Wilhelm Gundert] to Japan, its sale paying of his traveling expense to this country.” [1, v. 37, p. 26].

Finnish and Swedish translation, 1905. Danish translation, 1906. French translation, 1913. For your information, the Japanese translation appeared in 1935.

The German translation is “Aus Japan, wie es heute ist—Personliche Eindrucke.” ubersetzt von H. Gottsched (1912, Basel). It is very interesting for me that H. Gottsched translated the article, because he also translated Kierkegaard’s works. Goju Nakayawa translated the “Redector Kanzo Uchimura” section of this essay into Japanese in 1956.

Cf. The translator’s explanation in the Japanese edition of How I became a Christian, Iwanami Bunko, pp. 281–282.

“Jonathan X., the Author.”

Merriman Colbert Harris (1846–1921), a Methodist missionary from America.

Jonathan is the given name of the author of How I became a Christian. (cf. note 13).

I would like to note his phrase “to learn of His Laws to appropriate His Spirit to our hungering souls” in order to remind us of Kierkegaard’s term, Tilegnelse: appropriation.

Kierkegaard, The Concept of Anxiety, edited and translated with Introduction and Notes by Reidar Thomte, Princeton University Press, 1980, p. 14, note.

This article was published in January 1886 in The Methodist Review with the author’s name given as “A Japanese.” In his article, Uchimura used the term “Yamato Damashii.” Although he did not use the term “Bushido” in his How I Became a Christian, this eventually became one of his most favorite words.

Inazo Nitobe, Bushido; The Soul of Japan, published in 1900 by Leeds & Biddle, Philadelphia, and by Shokado, Tokyo. I quoted these sentences from Bushido, published by Kodansha International Ltd., 2002.

“Bushido and Christianity,” The Biblical Studies 186 (January 1916), Complete Works, vol. 22, p. 161. Cf. John F. Howes, Japan’s Modern Prophet, p. 236.

He established “Collegia Pietatis” (Schools of Piety) in 1670 and published Pia Desideria (Pious Desire) in 1675.

Robert L. Gallagher, “Zinzendorf and the Early Moravian Mission Movement,” A Faith and Learning Paper Presented to the Director of the Faith and Learning Program and the Provost, Wheaton College, In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for Promotion and Tenure, 2005.

Joakim Garff, Soren Kierkegaard, A Bibliography, translated by Bruce H. Kirmmse, Princeton University Press, 2005.


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